The History and Modernity of Art Forms
The history of the landscape dates back to ancient times. Initially, it was only a background for the scenes and historical events depicted on canvases. However, it happened that the landscape appeared as an independent motif, especially in the wall painting Hellenistic, where it had a decorative function.
Landscape – what exactly is it?
Landscape is a genre of fine arts, depicting the landscape. Nature, which landscapes put in their work, can be both untouched by human hand and after delicate interference. One of the most important elements of the landscape is perspective and composition. The construction of the mood of the painting is one of the main roles in landscape painting. An important element is the rendering of the atmosphere, the range of colors, its variability in time, as well as fleeting, air elements.
Landscape as a separate genre is a relatively recent invention of artists. Initially, it was used only as a background for the protagonists of the main plan. Gradually, along with the development of knowledge about chiaroscuro, perspective, proportionality, color and composition, nature became, at first, an equal object of the work of painters, and then the main motif and unexpectedly came to the fore. In case of the scenery painting this is the best deal now.
From an outdoor landscape to impressionism in painting
For some time, the landscapes were a generalized representation of the surrounding landscape, somewhat idealized and pictorial. The breakthrough was the presentation of a specific place, with its features and details, created by KonradBica, a Swiss painter from the 15th century. The flourishing of landscape painting is associated with the development of an outdoor landscape. Painting away from his studio became possible for artists thanks to the invention of paint in tubes.
It gave the opportunity to faithfully reproduce nature as it is, with the richness of colors, in the natural light, changing depending on the time of the day. To a large extent it widened the possibility of choosing motifs. In the period when academism played the main role in art, the landscape was in the background. When a new trend emerged in Europe – Impressionism – paintings of landscapes gained popularity and gradually displacing academism, they became the first in the world of painting art.
Representatives of the landscape trend
It is impossible to list all landscape painters who took a role in the development and history of landscape painting, but it would be good to mention a few names that are significant for art history. One of the most famous people representing this current is Russian Ivan Shishkin. He was one of the founders of the Pioneer group. It was the Association of painters who combined the idea of art reporting to many places. The pedestrians rode with exhibitions of their works all over the country and in such a way, they contributed to the propagation of painting even in places for which development in this direction was not a simple task. Shishkin created his landscapes of Switzerland, Germany, France and other countries. His work was admired mainly due to the accuracy in the dedication of details and incredible precision which shows, for example, Morning in the pine forest of his brush. It is also worth mentioning Theodore Rousseau. This French painter became famous for the realism of his rural landscapes. Also noteworthy is an artist such as the English painter Willian Turner, whose specialty were romantic landscapes.